Antibiotics in small medicine animals    


Antimicrobial agents are classified functionally according to the manner in which they adversely affect a micro-organism. Some organisms develop an ability to resist the effects of an antimicrobial agent.
Resistance against certain drugs in cases of antimicrobial treatment occurs usually as a result of prolonged growth of an organism in sublethal concentrations and the survival of the organisms which have the least innate susceptibility to the agent.
Subtherapeutic dosage used in mass medication programs as preventives against unspecific infections carry the risk of creating resistant strains.
Therefore it is reasonable to culture and identify the involved organisms and to perform a sensitivity test to determine the most appropriate antibacterial drug.
On top of that allows a distinct treatment as well in cases where the first drug of choice was not successful.
It is necessary to keep in mind clinical studies and experiences  as well as results of pharmacological and toxicological characteristics.
Species, age, organ system and other features should be considered as well.
The following  table shows recommended drugs, proprietary name, dosage and special characteristics and precautions. Ophthalmic drugs and drugs for topical  otitis-treatments  are included.


drugs (proprietary name)

therapeutic areas

dosage/ comment

1. Penicillium group


local and systemic infection of skin or respiratory tract 

not for use in ?exotic pets?

Cave: allergic reaktions with




(Penicillium G,

Penicillium V)


10.000-20.000 I.E.(15-25mg)/kg

s.c., i.m., i.v. 1-4 x daily.,

8-10(-30)mg/kg p.o. tid 


Leptospira infection 

25.000-40.000 I.E./kg bw i.m., i.v. bid
like  Streptomycin 

Oxa- und


(Stapenor H.M.?) 





11-55 mg/kg p.o. bid/tid 


(Ampisan 20?,

Lokalin 20?,



10-25 (cat:-50)mg/kg p.o. tid

10-20 mg/kg s.c., i.m., i.v. tid

birds: 50 mg/kg i.m. bid/tid

100mg/l water

rodents: 25mg/kg i.m., s.c.,

50-200mg/kg p.o. bid




5-10mg/kg p.o. bid

birds: 150mg/kg i.m., s.c.,

150mg/kg p.o. 2x tgl., 200-400mg/l water

300-500mg/kg soft food

rodents:100-150mg/kg i.m., s.c. bid 

Amoxicillin and





5-10mg/kg p.o. bid

birds: 125mg/kg p.o. bid 


2. Cephalosporine

UTR and skin infections 

Normally no cross reaction with Penicillium, in some cases of renal faillure > nephrotoxicity 





20mg/kg bid (max. 750mg)

if neccessary increase to tid  


(Cobaxim?, Rilexine?) 


20-30mg/kg p.o. bid

birds: 35-50mg/kg tid. p.o.

reptiles: 40-80mg/kg i.m.sid at 30?C

rodents: 15-30mg/kg i.m. bid/tid 


(Peracef?, Cefobis?) 



topic application, udder injectors,



3. Tetracycline

locale and systemic infectionen, drug of choise for Ehrlichiosis, Haemo-bartonellosis, Borreliosis, infections with Chlamydia, Mykoplasma and Campylobacter 

Cave: staining of teeth in juveniles







10-20mg/kg p. o., 1mg/kg i.v. bid (Chlamydia infektion in cats

7 mg/kg i.v, i.m.),

rodents (excl.hamster/ guinea pig

15-30mg/kg p.o




Ronaxan?, Vibravenös?,

Doxirobe Gel?)


5-10mg/kg/Tag, p.o. bid

birds: 10mg/kg/Tag i.m.,

10-25mg/kg p.o. bid 100mg/kg i.m.

once a week, 500mg/l water

no suppliment of grit during treatment

reptiles: 10 mg/kg i.m. sid



5. Polypeptides

intestinal tract infections locale infections of eye and ear with Pseudomonas

(neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity)


Polymixin B

(Stoparin?, Surolan?)


2-3mg/kg p.o. bid/tid

PolymixinE /Colistin (Colistin?)



2-3mg/kg p.o. tid


6. Makrolides

infection of respiratory
and urogenital system, bone marrow, and dermal infections, Mykoplasma infections


Erythromycin (Erythromycin?, Erythrocin?)


10-20mg/kg s.c. bid

5-10mg/kg p.o. qid

Cave: vomitus in dogs

birds:20mg/kg i.m., s.c., 125mg/ml water, 200mg/kg soft food


(Tylosin?, Tylan?)


2-10mg/kg i.m./day, increase dosage in  chronic colitis

Cave: injection pain

birds:20-40mg/kg, 500mg/l water, aerosol 100mg soluble in

5ml DMSO u. 10ml NaCl-solution

reptiles 25mg/kg i.m./sid at 30?C

rodents 10mg/kg bid i.m., s.c.



7. Lincosamide

infection of skin and bones, arthritis





10mg/kg i.m., 20mg/kg p.o. bid

Cave: Colitis in hamsters/rabbits


(Antirobe?, Sobelin?)

wound cavites- and dental infektion,

5-10mg/kg p.o. bid

osteomyelitis 11mg/kg

exp.rabbits dental infections 7.5 mg/kg



5-10mg/kg p.o. tid/qid


8. Gyrase inhibitors

infection of respiratory
and urogenital system, bone and joint, Chlamydia infections.

Cave: cartilage damage in juveniles





5mg/kg/Tag, p.o., s.c.

in Pseudomonas infections 5mg/kg bid

birds: 10-20mg/kg im, p.o. sid/bid





2mg/kg i.v., s.c., p.o./sid

birds:  10mg/kg p.o./sid


 9. micelaneous


(Chloramphenicol, Chloromycetin?, Chlorasel?, Ibemycin?)


infections with Chlamydia, Mykoplasma, Rickettsia and Bacteroides, meningo-encephalitis

30mg/kg i.m., p.o., s.c. bid

mouse: 50mg/kg i.m. bid

200mg/kg p.o. bid

rodents: 15-50mg/kg i.m., p.o. bid

Sulfonamid u. Trimethoprim (Trimethoprim- Sulfonamid?, Eusaprim?, Bactrim?, Borgal?, Tribrissen?)

infections with Chlamydia, Coczidia and Toxoplasma

15-20(30) mg/kg/sid for both substances, different applications depending on preparation

meningitis: 15mg/kg s.c., p.o. tid

mastitis: 30mg/kg p.o. bid

birds: 8mg/kg i.m., s.c. bid., 20mg/kg p.o. bid

reptiles: 15-30mg/kg i.m./sid at 24?C

rodents:50-120mg/kg i.m., s.c./sid 100mg/kg p.o./sid



(combined preparations: Urofur?, Urospasmon?, Uroclear?)


urinary tract infections

4mg/kg p.o. bid (related to Nitrofurantoin),

prophylactic in cases of  recurrent urinary tract infections :3-4 mg/kg/sid after last urination in the evening

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