Miller-Fowler's Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine Current Therapy, Volume 9, 1st Edition
Editors: R. Eric Miller & Nadine Lamberski & Paul Calle; ISBN: 9780323552288
Section 8: Emerging and Changing Infectious Diseases
39. Emerging Reptile Viruses, Pp. 267-273 (Rachel Marschang)
Bringing together a globally diverse range of timely topics related to zoo and wild animals, Fowler s Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine, Volume 9 is an invaluable tool for any professional working directly with wildlife and zoo animals. The text s user-friendly format guides readers through biology, anatomy, and special physiology; reproduction; restraint and handling; housing requirements; nutrition and feeding; surgery and anesthesia; diagnostics, and therapeutics for each animal. Two new co-editors and a globally diverse group of expert contributors each lend their expertise on a wide range of new topics - including a new section on emerging wildlife diseases covering topics like MERS, Equine Herpesvirus, and Ebola in great apes. Other new topics integrated into this ninth volume include: stem cell therapy in zoo medicine, cardiac disease in great apes, disease risk assessment in field studies, Tasmanian devil tumors, and the latest information on the elephant herpes virus. With all its synthesized coverage of emerging trends, treatment protocols, and diagnostic updates new to the field, Fowler s is a reference you don t want to be without. Current therapy format ensures that each CT volume in the series covers all new topics that are relevant at the time of publication. Synthesized topics offer the right amount of depth - often fewer than 10 pages - to maintain an accessible format. General taxon-based format covers all terrestrial vertebrate taxa plus selected topics on aquatic and invertebrate taxa. Updated information from the Zoological Information Management System (ZIMS) has been incorporated to keep readers up to date on this worldwide system. Globally diverse panel of expert contributors each incorporate the latest research and clinical management of captive and free-ranging wild animals throughout the world. NEW! Two new co-editors (for a total of three editors) each lend their expertise on a wide range of new wild and zoo animal topics. NEW! Section on emerging wildlife diseases includes chapters on MERS, SARS, Ebola in great apes, and a variety of other emerging wildlife diseases.
[ - ] "Accuracy of a diagnostic model based on serum biochemical parameters in detecting cows at an increased risk of chronic fascioliasis."
Veterinary Parasitology 2018, 254 , p.15-20
(Sławomir J. Kowalczyk, Michał Czopowicz, Corinna N. Weber, Elisabeth Müller, Jarosław Kaba)
In adult cattle Fasciola hepatica infection usually follows a chronic subclinical course, and reduces both the milk yield and milk quality, resulting in considerable financial losses. Effective control of the disease is based on reliable identification of asymptomatically infected individuals, which now requires special parasitological or serological diagnostic tests. It is also known that F. hepatica infection induces alterations in some serum biochemical parameters. Therefore, the study was conducted to develop a model based on serum biochemical parameters allowing to identify cows at higher risk of chronic fascioliasis. Six hundred sixty eight adult dairy cows from 97 herds located in central and northeastern Poland were clinically examined, and blood and fecal samples from them were collected for a routine monitoring of fascioliasis and metabolic profile. Using the combination of fecal sedimentation test and indirect ELISA based on excretory/secretory products 203 cows, apparently healthy in clinical examination, were definitively classed as affected by (47 cows, 23.2%) or free from (156 cows, 76.8%) chronic fascioliasis. Their serum was screened for the activity of 4 enzymes (γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, glutamate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase) and concentration of 18 other components (total bilirubin, total protein, albumin, globulin, urea, glucose, non-esterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, magnesium, copper, zinc, iron, selenium, and haptoglobin). Logistic regression analysis was used to build 4 multivariable models allowing for identification of cows at risk of chronic fascioliasis. Then, the accuracy was compared between the models using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC), and an optimal cut-off value was determined for the most accurate model using Youden J index. The most accurate proved to be the model based on glutamate dehydrogenase activity and globulin, urea (all three positively linked with risk of chronic fascioliasis), and selenium concentration (negatively linked) adjusted by the access to pasture and cow's age. At the optimal cut-off of 0.37 this model had sensitivity of 85.1% (CI 95%:72.3%, 92.6%), specificity of 90.4% (CI 95%:84.7%, 94.1%), positive likelihood ratio of 8.8 (CI 95%:5.4, 14.5), and negative likelihood ratio of 0.16 (CI 95%:0.08, 0.33). This model performed significantly better than model including only γ-glutamyl transpeptidase or model including both γ-glutamyl transpeptidase and aspartate aminotransferase (both also adjusted by the access to pasture and cow's age), and was the only model which performed significantly better than the basic model based solely on the access to pasture and cow's age.
[ - ] "Herd-level seroprevalence of Fasciola hepatica and Ostertagia ostertagi infection in dairy cattle population in the central and northeastern Poland."
BMC Veterinary Research 14;p.131-138
(Sławomir J. Kowalczyk, Michał Czopowicz, Corinna N. Weber, Elisabeth Müller, Tomasz Nalbert, Andrzej Bereznowski, Jarosław Kaba)
Fasciola hepatica and Ostertagia ostertagi infections are widespread in cattle population of Europe, however data on their prevalence in Poland are only fragmentary. Therefore, the cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the herd-level seroprevalence of F. hepatica and O. ostertagi infection in dairy cattle population in the central and north-eastern provinces Poland, and to identify basic local risk factors for these infections. In total, 598 herds were enrolled, 394 (65.9%) in the north-eastern province and 204 (34.1%) in the central province. In each herd the questionnaire survey was conducted and bulk-tank milk (BTM) sample was collected and screened using two indirect immunoenzymatic tests. Optical density ratio (ODR) was regarded as the quantitative proxy of exposure to either of the two parasites.
Both Fasciola and Ostertagia ELISA ODR in the north-eastern province was significantly higher than ODR in the central province. At the cut-off value of ODR = 0.27 the true herd-level seroprevalence of F. hepatica was 79.6% (95% CI: 74.0%, 84.3%) in the north-eastern province and 13.0% (95% CI: 5.3%, 21.7%) in the central province. At the cut-off of ODR = 0.50151 of 188 herds (80.3%, 95% CI: 74.1%, 85.4%) were seropositive for O. ostertagi in the north-eastern province and only 70 of 136 herds (51.5%, 95% CI: 43.1%, 59.7%) were seropositive in the central province. Location of a herd in the north-eastern province, longer grazing period practiced in a herd and > 50%-share of grazing grass in roughage were all positively related to the increase in exposure to both parasites. Moreover, the use of hay or haylage as main roughage proved to be positively related to the increase in exposure to F. hepatica.
F. hepatica and O. ostertagi are widespread in cattle population in Poland, however their occurrence at a herd-level varies between different regions of Poland. This diversity can only partly be explained by different herd management, and appears linked to environmental and climate conditions typical for these regions.
[ - ] "Serum amyloid A concentration in foals – Can it help when making a treatment decision in foals with pneumonia?"
Pferdeheilkunde - Equine Medicine 34, p.61-67
(Thomé R, Weber C, Rohn K, Venner M)
Bronchopneumonia is a frequent and serious pulmonary disorder in foals on equine breeding farms and the most common pathogens responsible for this condition are Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (Strep. eq. ssp. zoo.) and Rhodococcus equi (R. equi). As foal pneumonia occurs endemically on many studs worldwide, practitioners are asked to evaluate regularly all foals in order to detect early affected foals and reduce the losses. Some of those will show neither clinical symptoms nor hematological changes but obvious pulmonary lesions at sonography. Consequently the question of treating these foals will rise. The aim of the study was to evaluate the serum amyloid A (SAA) concentration in clinically healthy or mildly sick foals showing either no findings, moderate or severe findings at lung sonography. The investigation was a prospective study. A total of 33 foals were examined once weekly starting at the age of two weeks over a period of four months. Clinical signs, body temperature, ultrasonographical pulmonary findings and haematological findings including WBC count and SAA serum concentrations were monitored. After each sonographical examination of the lung, the diameters of pulmonary consolidations were added to obtain an abscess score that represents the severity of pulmonary disease of these foals. The frozen serum samples of the 33 foals were analysed at different stages of pneumonia. Altogether, 49 samples of healthy state (abscess score=0cm), 31 of moderately sick state (abscess score=1–9cm, no indication for treatment) and 22 of severe pulmonary damage (abscess score >10cm, indication for treatment) were analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to determine the SAA concentration. The median SAA was 18µg/ml (25th percentile: 1.5µ/ml; 75th percentile: 52.7µg/ml) in the healthy foals, 5.6µg/ml (25th: 2.4µg/ml; 75th: 82.3µg/ml) in the moderately sick foals and 80.2µg/ml (25th: 79.3µg/ml; 75th: 160µg/ml) in the foals requiring treatment. These results show that the SAA concentration might be considered as an efficient parameter for making a treatment decision in foals in the early course of pneumonia.
[ - ] "Microbiota of the conjunctival sac of 120 healthy cats in Germany (2017)"
Veterinary Ophthalmology; ISSN: 1463-5216
(Büttner, Jessica; Schneider, Marianne; Csokai, Jaqueline; Müller, Elisabeth; Eule, Johanna)
[ - ] "Report on the 4th International Symposium on Ranavirsues 2017"
Journal of Herpetological Medicine and Surgery 28(1): 13-18
(Rijks JM, Saucedo B, Brunner JL, Hick P, Lesbarrères D, Duffus A, Ash LV, Marschang RE.)
Ranaviruses are large, double-stranded DNA viruses in the family Iridoviridae. They are important pathogens in ﬁsh, amphibians, and reptiles and have caused severe disease outbreaks in captive and wild animals. Ranaviruses have been associated with population declines in amphibians in various parts of the world.
[ - ] "DETECTION OF OPHIDIOMYCES OPHIODIICOLA IN TWO CAPTIVE BOCOURT WATER SNAKES"
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 49(1):p219–222,2018
(Pierre Picquet, D.V.M., Kim O. Heckers, Dr. med. vet., Ekaterina Kolesnik, med. vet., Anton Heusinger, Dr. med. vet., and Rachel E. Marschang, Ph.D., Dr. med. vet., Dip. E.C.Z.M. (Herpetology)Pierre Picquet, D.V.M., Kim O. Heckers, Dr. med. vet., Ekaterina Kolesnik, med. vet., Anton Heusinger, Dr. med. vet., and Rachel E. Marschang, Ph.D., Dr. med. vet., Dip. E.C.Z.M. (Herpetology))
Two captive Bocourt water snakes (Subsessor bocourti) presented with chronic white skin lesions on their heads; Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola was identified by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in skin scrapings from both snakes. Histopathology performed in one Bocourt water snake revealed fungal hyphae in epidermal structures of lesions. One Pueblan milk snake (Lampropeltis triangulum campbelli) from the same zoologic institution presented with yellow crusts and white blisters on its body, from which O. ophiodiicola was identified by culture and PCR. Two of the three snakes apparently recovered from lesions after multiple natural sheds, whereas the third snake died. This is the first report of O. ophiodiicola infection in Bocourt water snakes and in a Pueblan milk snake, as well as the first report of O. ophiodiicola in France.
[ - ] "A novel MLPH variant in dogs with coat colour dilution"
Animal Genetics, Volume 49, Issue 1,p.1-4 DOI: 10.1111/age.12632
(A. Bauer, A. Kehl, V. Jagannathan, T. Leeb)
Coat colour dilution may be the result of altered melanosome transport in melanocytes. Loss-of-function variants in the melanophilin gene (MLPH) cause a recessively inherited form of coat colour dilution in many mammalian and avian species including the dog. MLPH corresponds to the D locus in many domestic animals, and recessive alleles at this locus are frequently denoted with d. In this study, we investigated dilute coloured Chow Chows whose coat colour could not be explained by their genotype at the previously known MLPH:c.–22G>A variant. Whole genome sequencing of such a dilute Chow Chow revealed another variant in the MLPH gene: MLPH:c.705G>C. We propose to designate the corresponding mutant alleles at these two variants d1 and d2. We performed an association study in a cohort of 15 dilute and 28 non-dilute Chow Chows. The dilute dogs were all either compound heterozygous d1/d2 or homozygous d2/d2, whereas the non-dilute dogs carried at least one wildtype allele D. The d2 allele did not occur in 417 dogs from diverse other breeds. However, when we genotyped a Sloughi family, in which a dilute coloured puppy had been born out of non-dilute parents, we again observed perfect co-segregation of the newly discovered d2 allele with coat colour dilution. Finally, we identified a blue Thai Ridgeback with the d1/d2 genotype. Thus, our data identify the MLPH:c.705G>C as a variant explaining a second canine dilution allele. Although relatively rare overall, this d2 allele is segregating in at least three dog breeds, Chow Chows, Sloughis and Thai Ridgebacks.
[ - ] "Gastrointestinal B-lymphoblastic lymphoma in a dog:a case report"
Veterinarni Medicina, 63, 2018 (01): 40–49
(P. Borska, R. Husnik, P. Fictum, A. Kehl, L. Leva, M. Faldyna)
A four-year-old Bullmastiff weighing 44 kg was presented with a 14-day history of weight loss, vomiting and diarrhoea. Abdominal ultrasonography showed the presence of abdominal lymphadenopathy and thickening of the wall of the descending colon. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy with biopsy were performed. Histological examination revealed a high-grade lymphoblastic lymphoma, flow cytometric analysis detected malignant cells of the immature B phenotype. PCR for antigen receptor rearrangement confirmed IgH monoclonality pointing together with immunophenotyping to B-cell lymphoma. The dog was treated using a multi-agent chemotherapy protocol. The overall survival time was 487 days. This was an unusual case of primary gastrointestinal B-lymphoblastic lymphoma in a dog with survival equivalent to that of the multicentric form.
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